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Chytrid Bibliography of Dr. Joyce E. Longcore

This compendium was compiled by Joyce Longcore to serve as a catalog of all described zoosporic true fungi since the monograph of F. K. Sparrow 1960.







Building upon previously published monographs by F. K. Sparrow and D. J. S. Barr, Joyce E. Longcore’s chytrid bibliography serves as an updated compilation of all published literature on the taxonomy of zoosporic eufungi since 1960. It also includes literature references for species not included in F. K. Sparrow’s original monograph, such as those belonging to class Monoblepharidomycetes. The bibliography does not include new species in parasitic genera, such as those belonging to Coelomomyces, Physoderma, and Synchytriales.

History of the Chytrid Bibliography

In 1960, American mycologist Frederick Kroeber Sparrow published an update of his original 1943 monograph. In this update, F. K. Sparrow compiled taxonomic records of aquatic, zoosporic fungi from all literature published since 1856, when Alexander Braun described the first known species of chytrid. This included records of taxa belonging to the phylum Chytridiomycota and other divisions of zoosporic fungi. At this time, zoosporic fungi species were placed in one of three orders within the class Phycomycetes: Blastocladiales, Monoblepharidales, or Chytridiales. These classifications have since been adjusted due to advancements in ultrastructural and molecular analyses.

Ultrastructural Era

A new era in the systematics of chytrids began in 1980 when Barr segregated the Order Spizellomycetales, from the Chytridiales on the basis of zoosporic ultrastructure. From the ultrastructural work published in the late 60’s and 70’s Barr concluded that flagellar associated ultrastructure was more conserved and thus more phylogenetically informative than thallus morphology, which had provided the characters for earlier classifications. Barr also suggested that new genera and species should include information on zoosporic ultrastructure.

Molecular Era

In 2000, the molecular era of chytrid systematics began with the publication by James et al. of a phylogeny of the Chytridiomycota based on analysis of the nuclear small subunit of RNA. They found then and in a subsequent study with more molecular markers (James et al. 2006) that the phylogenetic clades found by analysis of DNA sequences supported groups found by comparison of zoospore ultrastructure. Although well-supported clades were found within the Chytridiales, the order was polyphyletic. Acting on this, researchers have described additional orders. Currently zoospore-producing fungi in the eufungal clade are classified primarily in the Aphelida, Cryptomycota (rozellids), Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, and Chytridiomycota.  Recently (2021), Strassert et al. (Scientific reports 11:396) presented genetic evidence that the insect-infecting Nephridiophaga are within the Chytridiomycota.


Names of new taxa above the level of species are printed entirely in upper case letters. Figures, substrates, and habitats are listed for new species. IF = Index of Fungi and is included when orthographic changes were made. ZH = Zarys Hydromikologii (Batko 1975). HP = Handbook of Protoctista (Margulis et al., eds. 1975). CI = Chytridiomycetarum Iconographia (Karling 1977).